Working with Rules

Note: This page covers the most recent rule format for ESLint >= 3.0.0. There is also a deprecated rule format.

注意:这个页面覆盖了 ESLint( >= 3.0.0)的大部分规则格式。也有弃用的规则格式

Each rule in ESLint has three files named with its identifier (for example, no-extra-semi).

ESLint 中的每个规则都有三个文件,以它的 ID 命名(例如,no-extra-semi)。

Important: If you submit a core rule to the ESLint repository, you must follow some conventions explained below.

重要:如果你向 ESLint 库提交了一个 核心规则,你 必须遵循下面的约定。

Here is the basic format of the source file for a rule:


 * @fileoverview Rule to disallow unnecessary semicolons
 * @author Nicholas C. Zakas

"use strict";

// Rule Definition

module.exports = {
    meta: {
        type: "suggestion",

        docs: {
            description: "disallow unnecessary semicolons",
            category: "Possible Errors",
            recommended: true,
            url: ""
        fixable: "code",
        schema: [] // no options
    create: function(context) {
        return {
            // callback functions

Rule Basics

The source file for a rule exports an object with the following properties.


meta (object) contains metadata for the rule:


create (function) returns an object with methods that ESLint calls to “visit” nodes while traversing the abstract syntax tree (AST as defined by ESTree) of JavaScript code:

create (function) 返回一个对象,其中包含了 ESLint 在遍历 JavaScript 代码的抽象语法树 AST (ESTree 定义的 AST) 时,用来访问节点的方法。

A rule can use the current node and its surrounding tree to report or fix problems.


Here are methods for the array-callback-return rule:

这里是 array-callback-return 规则的一些方法:

function checkLastSegment (node) {
    // report problem for function if last code path segment is reachable

module.exports = {
    meta: { ... },
    create: function(context) {
        // declare the state of the rule
        return {
            ReturnStatement: function(node) {
                // at a ReturnStatement node while going down
            // at a function expression node while going up:
            "FunctionExpression:exit": checkLastSegment,
            "ArrowFunctionExpression:exit": checkLastSegment,
            onCodePathStart: function (codePath, node) {
                // at the start of analyzing a code path
            onCodePathEnd: function(codePath, node) {
                // at the end of analyzing a code path

The Context Object

The context object contains additional functionality that is helpful for rules to do their jobs. As the name implies, the context object contains information that is relevant to the context of the rule. The context object has the following properties:

context 对象包含额外的功能,有利于规则完成他们的工作。顾名思义,context对象包含与规则上下文相关的信息。context 对象具有以下属性:

Additionally, the context object has the following methods:

此外, context 对象有以下方法:

Note: Earlier versions of ESLint supported additional methods on the context object. Those methods were removed in the new format and should not be relied upon.

注意:ESLint 的早期版本支持 context 对象的额外的方法。这些方法在新的格式中已被移除,不应该再使用。


This method returns the scope which has the following types:


AST Node Type Scope Type
Program global
FunctionDeclaration function
FunctionExpression function
ArrowFunctionExpression function
ClassDeclaration class
ClassExpression class
BlockStatement ※1 block
SwitchStatement ※1 switch
ForStatement ※2 for
ForInStatement ※2 for
ForOfStatement ※2 for
WithStatement with
CatchClause catch
others ※3

※1 Only if the configured parser provided the block-scope feature. The default parser provides the block-scope feature if parserOptions.ecmaVersion is not less than 6.
※2 Only if the for statement defines the iteration variable as a block-scoped variable (E.g., for (let i = 0;;) {}).
※3 The scope of the closest ancestor node which has own scope. If the closest ancestor node has multiple scopes then it chooses the innermost scope (E.g., the Program node has a global scope and a module scope if Program#sourceType is "module". The innermost scope is the module scope.).

※1 仅当配置的解析器提供块作用域特性时才使用。默认的解析器提供块范围特性,如果parserOptions.ecmaVersion不小于 6
※2 只有当 for 语句将迭代变量定义为块作用域的变量时 (例如,for (let i = 0;;) {})。
※3 具有自己作用域的最近祖先节点的作用域。如果最近的祖先节点有多个作用域,那么它选择最内部的作用域(例如,如果Program#sourceType"module",则 Program 节点有一个 global 作用域和一个 module 作用域。最内层的作用域是 "module" 作用域。)。

The main method you’ll use is, which publishes a warning or error (depending on the configuration being used). This method accepts a single argument, which is an object containing the following properties:


Note that at least one of node or loc is required.

请注意,nodeloc 至少有一个是必须的。

The simplest example is to use just node and message:

最简单的示例是只使用 nodemessage{
    node: node,
    message: "Unexpected identifier"

The node contains all of the information necessary to figure out the line and column number of the offending text as well the source text representing the node.


Using message placeholders

You can also use placeholders in the message and provide data:

你也可以在消息中使用占位符和提供 data{
    node: node,
    message: "Unexpected identifier: {{ identifier }}",
    data: {

Note that leading and trailing whitespace is optional in message parameters.


The node contains all of the information necessary to figure out the line and column number of the offending text as well the source text representing the node.



Instead of typing out messages in both the call and your tests, you can use messageIds instead.

你可以使用 messageIds 来代替在 调用和测试中键入消息。

This allows you to avoid retyping error messages. It also prevents errors reported in different sections of your rule from having out-of-date messages.


// in your rule
module.exports = {
    meta: {
        messages: {
            avoidName: "Avoid using variables named '{{ name }}'"
    create(context) {
        return {
            Identifier(node) {
                if ( === "foo") {
                        messageId: "avoidName",
                        data: {
                            name: "foo",

// in the file to lint:

var foo = 2;
//  ^ error: Avoid using variables named 'foo'

// In your tests:
var rule = require("../../../lib/rules/my-rule");
var RuleTester = require("eslint").RuleTester;

var ruleTester = new RuleTester();"my-rule", rule, {
    valid: ["bar", "baz"],
    invalid: [
            code: "foo",
            errors: [
                    messageId: "avoidName"

Applying Fixes

If you’d like ESLint to attempt to fix the problem you’re reporting, you can do so by specifying the fix function when using The fix function receives a single argument, a fixer object, that you can use to apply a fix. For example:

如果你想让 ESLint 尝试去修复你所报告的问题,你可在使用 时指定 fix 函数。fix 函数接收一个参数,即一个 fixer 对象,你可以用它来进行修复。例如:{
    node: node,
    message: "Missing semicolon",
    fix: function(fixer) {
        return fixer.insertTextAfter(node, ";");

Here, the fix() function is used to insert a semicolon after the node. Note that a fix is not immediately applied, and may not be applied at all if there are conflicts with other fixes. After applying fixes, ESLint will run all of the enabled rules again on the fixed code, potentially applying more fixes. This process will repeat up to 10 times, or until no more fixable problems are found. Afterwards, any remaining problems will be reported as usual.

在这里,fix() 函数被用来在该节点之后插入一个分号。注意,此函数并不立即进行修复,如果与其它修复程序有冲突,可能根本就不进行修复。在应用修复之后,ESLint 将在所有启用的规则再次运行修复的代码,以应用更多的修复。这个过程将最多重复10次,直到找到更多的可修复的问题。之后,其他问题将照常进行报告。

Important: Unless the rule exports the meta.fixable property, ESLint does not apply fixes even if the rule implements fix functions.

重要:除非规则输出 meta.fixable 属性,ESLint 不会进行修复,即使该规则实现了 fix 函数。

The fixer object has the following methods:

fixer 对象有一下几个方法:

The above methods return a fixing object.

以上方法返回一个 fixing 对象。

The fix() function can return the following values:

fix() 函数可以返回下面的值:

If you make a fix() function which returns multiple fixing objects, those fixing objects must not be overlapped.

如果你让一个 fix() 函数返回多个 fixing 对象,那么这些 fixing 对象不能重叠。

Best practices for fixes:


  1. Avoid any fixes that could change the runtime behavior of code and cause it to stop working.
  2. 避免任何可能改变代码运行时行为和导致其停止工作的修复。
  3. Make fixes as small as possible. Fixes that are unnecessarily large could conflict with other fixes, and prevent them from being applied.
  4. 做尽可能小的修复。那些不必要的修复可能会与其他修复发生冲突,应该避免。
  5. Only make one fix per message. This is enforced because you must return the result of the fixer operation from fix().
  6. 使每条消息只有一个修复。这是强制的,因为你必须从 fix() 返回修复操作的结果。
  7. Since all rules are run again after the initial round of fixes is applied, it’s not necessary for a rule to check whether the code style of a fix will cause errors to be reported by another rule.
  8. 由于所有的规则只第一轮修复之后重新运行,所以规则就没必要去检查一个修复的代码风格是否会导致另一个规则报告错误。
    • For example, suppose a fixer would like to surround an object key with quotes, but it’s not sure whether the user would prefer single or double quotes.
    • 比如,假如修复一个对象的键周周围的引号,但不确定用户是喜欢单引号还是双引号。

        ({ foo : 1 })
        // should get fixed to either
        ({ 'foo': 1 })
        // or
        ({ "foo": 1 })
    • This fixer can just select a quote type arbitrarily. If it guesses wrong, the resulting code will be automatically reported and fixed by the quotes rule.
    • 修复程序将可以随意选择一种引号类型。如果猜错了,quotes 规则将会自动报告和修复。


Some rules require options in order to function correctly. These options appear in configuration (.eslintrc, command line, or in comments). For example:


    "quotes": ["error", "double"]

The quotes rule in this example has one option, "double" (the error is the error level). You can retrieve the options for a rule by using context.options, which is an array containing every configured option for the rule. In this case, context.options[0] would contain "double":

在这个例子中 quotes 规则有一个可选项 "double"error 是错误级别)。你可以使用 context.options检索一个规则的可选项,它是个数组,包含该规则的所有配置的可选项。在这个例子中,context.options[0] 包含 "double"

module.exports = {
    create: function(context) {
        var isDouble = (context.options[0] === "double");

        // ...

Since context.options is just an array, you can use it to determine how many options have been passed as well as retrieving the actual options themselves. Keep in mind that the error level is not part of context.options, as the error level cannot be known or modified from inside a rule.

由于 context.options 仅仅是个数组,你可以使用它来决定传入多少选项以及检索实际的选项本身。记住,错误级别不是 context.options 的一部分,在一个规则中,无法知道也无法修改错误级别。

When using options, make sure that your rule has some logical defaults in case the options are not provided.



The SourceCode object is the main object for getting more information about the source code being linted. You can retrieve the SourceCode object at any time by using the getSourceCode() method:

SourceCode 是获取被检查源码的更多信息的主要对象。你可以使用 getSourceCode()在任何时间检索 SourceCode 对象。

module.exports = {
    create: function(context) {
        var sourceCode = context.getSourceCode();

        // ...

Once you have an instance of SourceCode, you can use the methods on it to work with the code:

一旦你获取了 SourceCode 的一个实例,你可以在代码中使用它的方法:

describe for parameters above:


skipOptions is an object which has 3 properties; skip, includeComments, and filter. Default is {skip: 0, includeComments: false, filter: null}.

skipOptions 是个对象,包含三个属性;skipincludeCommentsfilter。默认是 {skip: 0, includeComments: false, filter: null}

countOptions is an object which has 3 properties; count, includeComments, and filter. Default is {count: 0, includeComments: false, filter: null}.

countOptions 是个对象包含三个属性;countincludeCommentsfilter。默认为 {count: 0, includeComments: false, filter: null}

rangeOptions is an object which has 1 property: includeComments.

rangeOptions 是个对象,包含一个属性: includeComments

There are also some properties you can access:


You should use a SourceCode object whenever you need to get more information about the code being linted.

你应该使用 SourceCode 对象,无论在何时你需要获取有关被检查的代码的更多信息。


Please note that the following methods have been deprecated and will be removed in a future version of ESLint:

请注意,以下方法已被弃用,将在 ESLint 未来某个版本中移除:

Options Schemas

Rules may export a schema property, which is a JSON schema format description of a rule’s options which will be used by ESLint to validate configuration options and prevent invalid or unexpected inputs before they are passed to the rule in context.options.

规则可能输出一个 schema 属性,遵循JSON schema 格式,用来描述一个规则的选项,ESLint 会用它来验证配置中的选项是否有效,在传入到规则中之前,避免 context.options 出现无效或非法输入。

There are two formats for a rule’s exported schema. The first is a full JSON Schema object describing all possible options the rule accepts, including the rule’s error level as the first argument and any optional arguments thereafter.

每个规则输出的 scheam 有两种格式。第一种是一个完整的 JSON 模式对象,描述该规则接收的所有可能的选项,包括作为第一个参数的规则错误级别和其他依次后排的可选参数。

However, to simplify schema creation, rules may also export an array of schemas for each optional positional argument, and ESLint will automatically validate the required error level first. For example, the yoda rule accepts a primary mode argument, as well as an extra options object with named properties.

然而,为了简化模式创建,规则可能也输出一个包含每个可选的位置参数对应的模式数组,ESLint 会自动先验证所要求的错误级别。例如,yoda规则接收一个主要的模式参数,同一个额外的选项对象带有命名的属性一样。

// "yoda": [2, "never", { "exceptRange": true }]
module.exports = {
    meta: {
        schema: [
                "enum": ["always", "never"]
                "type": "object",
                "properties": {
                    "exceptRange": {
                        "type": "boolean"
                "additionalProperties": false

In the preceding example, the error level is assumed to be the first argument. It is followed by the first optional argument, a string which may be either "always" or "never". The final optional argument is an object, which may have a Boolean property named exceptRange.


To learn more about JSON Schema, we recommend looking at some examples in website to start, and also reading Understanding JSON Schema (a free ebook).

了解更多 JSON 模式,我们建议从网站中的一些示例开始,并阅读Understanding JSON Schema(一个免费的电子书)。

Note: Currently you need to use full JSON Schema object rather than array in case your schema has references ($ref), because in case of array format ESLint transforms this array into a single schema without updating references that makes them incorrect (they are ignored).

注意:目前,如果你的模式有引用 ($ref),你需要使用完整的 JSON Schema 对象而不是数组,因为在数组格式的情况下,ESLint 将该数组转换为单个模式,而不更新其引用,导致错误(它们将被忽略)。

Getting the Source

If your rule needs to get the actual JavaScript source to work with, then use the sourceCode.getText() method. This method works as follows:

如果你的规则需要获取实际的 JavaScript 的源,那么使用 sourceCode.getText() 方法。该方法运行如下:

// get all source
var source = sourceCode.getText();

// get source for just this AST node
var nodeSource = sourceCode.getText(node);

// get source for AST node plus previous two characters
var nodeSourceWithPrev = sourceCode.getText(node, 2);

// get source for AST node plus following two characters
var nodeSourceWithFollowing = sourceCode.getText(node, 0, 2);

In this way, you can look for patterns in the JavaScript text itself when the AST isn’t providing the appropriate data (such as location of commas, semicolons, parentheses, etc.).

通过这种方式,当 AST 没有提供合适的数据(比如逗号、分号、括号的位置等),你可以寻找 JavaScript 文本中的模式本身。

Accessing Comments

While comments are not technically part of the AST, ESLint provides a few ways for rules to access them:

虽然从技术上说,评论并不是 AST 的一部分,但 ESLint 提供了一些方法来访问它们:


This method returns an array of all the comments found in the program. This is useful for rules that need to check all comments regardless of location.


sourceCode.getCommentsBefore(), sourceCode.getCommentsAfter(), and sourceCode.getCommentsInside()

These methods return an array of comments that appear directly before, directly after, and inside nodes, respectively. They are useful for rules that need to check comments in relation to a given node or token.

这些方法分别返回一个在节点之前,节点之后,节点内的注释的数组。这对于要检查给定的节点或 token 的注释的规则是有用的。

Keep in mind that the results of this method are calculated on demand.


Token traversal methods

Finally, comments can be accessed through many of sourceCode’s methods using the includeComments option.

最后,注释可以通过很多 sourceCode 的方法使用 includeComments 选项来访问。

Accessing Shebangs

Shebangs are represented by tokens of type "Shebang". They are treated as comments and can be accessed by the methods outlined above.

Shebang(#!) 使用 "Shebang" 类型的 token 来表示。它们可以被当做注释,也可以用上述方法来访问。

Accessing Code Paths

ESLint analyzes code paths while traversing AST. You can access that code path objects with five events related to code paths.

ESLint 遍历 AST 时,会分析代码路径。你也可以使用与代码路径相关的 5 个事件访问代码路径对象。

details here


Rule Unit Tests

Each bundled rule for ESLint core must have a set of unit tests submitted with it to be accepted. The test file is named the same as the source file but lives in tests/lib/. For example, if the rule source file is lib/rules/foo.js then the test file should be tests/lib/rules/foo.js.

ESLint provides the RuleTester utility to make it easy to write tests for rules.

Performance Testing

To keep the linting process efficient and unobtrusive, it is useful to verify the performance impact of new rules or modifications to existing rules.


Overall Performance

When developing in the ESLint core repository, the npm run perf command gives a high-level overview of ESLint running time with all core rules enabled.

在 ESLint 核心库中进行开发时,npm run perf 命令提供了启用所有核心规则的 ESLint 运行时间的高级概览。

$ git checkout master
Switched to branch 'master'

$ npm run perf
CPU Speed is 2200 with multiplier 7500000
Performance Run #1:  1394.689313ms
Performance Run #2:  1423.295351ms
Performance Run #3:  1385.09515ms
Performance Run #4:  1382.406982ms
Performance Run #5:  1409.68566ms
Performance budget ok:  1394.689313ms (limit: 3409.090909090909ms)

$ git checkout my-rule-branch
Switched to branch 'my-rule-branch'

$ npm run perf
CPU Speed is 2200 with multiplier 7500000
Performance Run #1:  1443.736547ms
Performance Run #2:  1419.193291ms
Performance Run #3:  1436.018228ms
Performance Run #4:  1473.605485ms
Performance Run #5:  1457.455283ms
Performance budget ok:  1443.736547ms (limit: 3409.090909090909ms)

Per-rule Performance

ESLint has a built-in method to track performance of individual rules. Setting the TIMING environment variable will trigger the display, upon linting completion, of the ten longest-running rules, along with their individual running time and relative performance impact as a percentage of total rule processing time.

ESLint 有一个内置的方法用来追踪每条规则的性能。设置 TIMING 环境变量,在检查完成之际,将触发展示是个长时间运行的规则以及它们各自的运行时间和相应的性能影响(占所有规则处理时间的百分比)。

$ TIMING=1 eslint lib
Rule                    | Time (ms) | Relative
no-multi-spaces         |    52.472 |     6.1%
camelcase               |    48.684 |     5.7%
no-irregular-whitespace |    43.847 |     5.1%
valid-jsdoc             |    40.346 |     4.7%
handle-callback-err     |    39.153 |     4.6%
space-infix-ops         |    35.444 |     4.1%
no-undefined            |    25.693 |     3.0%
no-shadow               |    22.759 |     2.7%
no-empty-class          |    21.976 |     2.6%
semi                    |    19.359 |     2.3%

To test one rule explicitly, combine the --no-eslintrc, and --rule options:

为了明确表明测试一个规则,结合使用 --no-eslintrc--rule 选项:

$ TIMING=1 eslint --no-eslintrc --rule "quotes: [2, 'double']" lib
Rule   | Time (ms) | Relative
quotes |    18.066 |   100.0%

Rule Naming Conventions

The rule naming conventions for ESLint are fairly simple:

ESLint 的规则命名约定相当简单:

Runtime Rules

The thing that makes ESLint different from other linters is the ability to define custom rules at runtime. This is perfect for rules that are specific to your project or company and wouldn’t make sense for ESLint to ship with. With runtime rules, you don’t have to wait for the next version of ESLint or be disappointed that your rule isn’t general enough to apply to the larger JavaScript community, just write your rules and include them at runtime.

使 ESLint 有别于其他检查工具的东西是,它可以在运行时定义自定义的规则。This is perfect for rules that are specific to your project or company and wouldn’t make sense for ESLint to ship with.有了运行时规则,你不需要等待 ESLint 的下一个版本或为你的规则不够太通用以至不能适用于大的 JavaScript 社区而感到失望,写出你的规则并将它们在运行时引入即可。

Runtime rules are written in the same format as all other rules. Create your rule as you would any other and then follow these steps:


  1. Place all of your runtime rules in the same directory (i.e., eslint_rules).
  2. 把你所有的运行时规则放在同一个目录下 (例如, eslint_rules)。
  3. Create a configuration file and specify your rule ID error level under the rules key. Your rule will not run unless it has a value of 1 or 2 in the configuration file.
  4. 创建一个配置文件,在 rules 键下指定你的规则 ID、错误级别。你的规则将不会运行,除非在配置文件中有一个 12 的值
  5. Run the command line interface using the --rulesdir option to specify the location of your runtime rules.
  6. 运行命令行 使用 --rulesdir 选项指定你的运行时规则的位置。